Language and Brain

Posted: Juni 28, 2011 in Research Papers

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Language is one of the pillars of the human intellect. It is the principal means whereby individuals formulate thoughts and convey them to others. It plays a role in analyzing the world, in reasoning, solving problems, and planning actions. It allows us to convey memories of the past and beliefs about the future, to engage others about events that have not taken place, and to express the relations between events.
Language is an indispensable part of human culture, without which jurisprudence, commerce, science and other human endeavors could not exist in the forms we know them. It is an object of beauty in its own right. A combination of semantic and artistic force can make writings such as Second Isaiah, the Gettysburg Address, or Shakespeare’s sonnets, the definitive statements of spirituality, jurisprudence, or personal love for a culture or an individual.
Related to the above, it can be said in fact humans can think without using language, but language skills facilitate learning and remembering, memecakan problems and draw conclusions. Language allows individual codes for events and objects in the form of words. With individuals capable of abstract language of his experience and communicate it to others because language is a symbol of the infinite system capable of expressing all the thinking.
Based on the above ideas, we can say the relationship between language and thought is a theme that is very challenging in the world of psychology studies. Therefore, the authors attempt to uncover the relationship to include the views and concepts from several experts associated with these disciplines.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
Processing language
Language processors activate these linguistic representations in speaking, understanding, reading and writing, in a remarkably fast and accurate way. For instance, when we speak, we select words in accordance with what we think our listener will understand. We activate the sounds for each word. We construct a syntactic structure to relate the words to each other, and an intonational contour to convey the syntax.
All this information is translated into movements of the mouth, jaw, tongue, palate, larynx and other articulators that are regulated on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis, so that we produce about three words per second or one sound every tenth of a second on average. Yet we only make about one sound error per million sounds and one word error per million words.
Watching the brain speak and listen
Scientists have tried for over a century to understand how the brain learns, stores, and processes language. The task is difficult because there are no animals who have symbol systems as rich as language. Therefore, for a long time, information about how the brain processed language could only come from the study of the effects on language of neurological disease in humans. In the past decade, exciting new techniques have allowed us to picture the normal brain at work processing language. What used to take decades to learn, as scientists waited for the opportunity to examine the brains of patients at post-mortem, can now be approached in months using positron emission tomography, special analyses of electroencephalograms, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, and other tools.

Language and Brain
Of course, language is a function of the peculiar structure of the human brain. Several areas of the brain have been identified with linguistic skills, such as producing and understanding speech. Furthermore, people with brain damage in specific areas have difficulties with very specific aspects of language, implying that it is a highly compartmentalized process. Furthermore, human brains are functionally asymmetrical, concentrating many areas essential for speech production in one hemisphere.
The structure of Brain
In many animals that use sound for communication, the brain is lateralized, placing the control of sound production in one hemisphere of the brain (usually the left); this takes place quite strongly in songbirds and somewhat in monkeys, dolphins, and mice. The phenomenon of lateralization is extremely strong in humans, and in the vast majority language areas are concentrated in the left hemisphere. The right hemisphere controls language in only about 3% of right-handers and 19% of left-handers, and another 68% of left-handers have language circuitry in both hemispheres.
There are two major areas of the human brain that are responsible for language: Broca’s area, which is though to be partially responsible for language production (putting together sentences, using proper syntax, etc.) and Wernicke’s area, which is thought to be partially responsible for language processing (untangling others’ sentences and analyzing them for syntax, inflection, etc.). Other areas involved in language are those surrounding the Sylvian fissure, a cleavage line separating the portions of the brain that are exclusively human from those we share with other animals. In general, the areas that control language would be adjacent to one another if the human brain was laid out as a flat sheet.
The brain acts as a “command center” for language and communication, control of both physical and mental components of speech. Step that triggers the speech: Many areas of the brain work together to control the speech, as illustrated. Specific areas used slightly different for reading aloud or engage in conversation. Visual cortex (1A) to move when reading aloud while the auditory cortex (1B) dominate during the conversation. Image Credit: Zina Deretsky, the National Science Foundation
The second half is expected to contribute to the processing and language comprehension: the left brain processes the meaning of linguistic prosody (or, rhythm, stress, and intonation of spoken connected), while the right hemisphere processes the emotions conveyed by prosody. Studies of children have shown that if a child has left brain damage, the child can develop language in the right hemisphere instead. The younger the child, the better the recovery. So, although “natural” is the tendency for language to develop on the left, the human brain is able to adapt to difficult situations, if the damage occurs early enough.
In the speaker (right), the brain controls all mental and physical aspects of speech. Sounds began as the breath expelled from the lungs. On his journey to the mouth, trembling with forced air through the vocal cords. Mouth, nose and tongue are modifying the air vibrate to form sound waves. Facial expressions and gestures also play a role in communication. In the audience (left), sound waves enter the ear and then analyzed with words by the brain. Image Credit: Zina Deretsky, the National Science Foundation
Area’s first language in the left hemisphere to be found is Broca’s area, named after Paul Broca, who discovered the area while studying patients with aphasia, language disorder. Broca’s area does not only deal out language in the sense of the motor, though. It seems more commonly involved in the ability to process its own grammar, at least the more complex aspects of grammar. For example, handles distinguish a sentence in the passive form of the sentence subject-verb-object is simple – the difference between “The boy hit the girl” and “The girl hit the boy.”
Region found a second language is called Wernicke’s area, after Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist who discovered the area while studying patients who have symptoms similar to patients with damage to Broca’s area but on different parts of their brains. Wernicke’s aphasia is the term for disorders that occur in patients with damage to Wernicke’s area.
Wernicke’s aphasia affects not only the understanding of speech. People with Wernicke’s aphasia also have trouble remembering names of objects, often respond with words that sound similar, or a name related matters, because if they have trouble remembering the association said.

Broca’s aphasia.
When people experience damage to Broca’s area or its surroundings, their disorder is called Broca’s aphasia. As predicted by the central role of Broca’s area in language production, Broca’s aphasics produce slow, halting speech that is rarely grammatical. Typical Broca’s aphasics eliminate inflections such as -ed and words not central to the meaning of the sentence, such as the and and. They generally retain their vocabularies and have no difficulty naming objects or performing other meaning-related tasks. In general, they can deduce the meanings of sentences from general knowledge, but cannot understand sentences whose syntax is essential to their meaning. They are fully aware of their difficulties and the rest of their faculties are unimpaired.
The difficulties experienced by Broca’s aphasics reveal that Broca’s area is central to correct processing and production of grammatical information. However, some Broca’s aphasics retain certain grammatical abilities, including the ability to process certain types of syntax. Moreover, the difficulty that Broca’s aphasics experience in actual production of speech is also enigmatic; a problem that affected exclusively grammar would not necessarily create difficulty in speaking – only in speaking grammatically. As a result, Broca’s area is clearly involved in grammar and language, but there may be other areas in the brain with overlapping functions, and it may not be the seat of all grammatical processing power.

Wernicke’s aphasia,
When people experience damage to Wernicke’s area, the result is a disorder called Wernicke’s aphasia, which is in some ways the opposite of Broca’s aphasia. Wernicke’s aphasics are able to produce generally grammatical sentences, but they are often nonsensical and include invented words. Wernicke’s aphasics show few signs of understanding others’ speech, and have difficulty naming objects; they commonly produce the names of related objects or words that sound similar to the object’s name.
The symptoms experienced by Wernicke’s aphasics seem to support the idea that Wernicke’s are is related to the correct processing of others’ communication. It also implies that Wernicke’s area could be involved in the retrieval of words from the mental dictionary.


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
Essentially in the communication process occurs to produce and understand speech. It could be argued that psycholinguistics is the study of mental mechanisms that occur in people who use language, either during manufacture or understand speech. In other words, the use of language is a process of changing the mind into the code and change the code into the mind. Speech is a synthesis of the concept of a code conversion process, while understanding the message of the code analysis.
Language as an expression or result of the process and as something that is processed either in the form of spoken or written language, as proposed by Kempen (Marat, 1983: 5) that Psycholinguistics is the study of human beings as language users, namely the study of language systems that exist in people who can explain how humans can catch the ideas of others and how he can express his own ideas through language, either in writing or orally. When associated with language skills to be mastered by anyone, it relates to language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Humans as language users can be considered as organisms move to reach the domains of psychology, whether cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The ability to use language, both receptive (listening and reading) or productive (speaking and writing) involves all three domains earlier.
The term cognitive cognition that comes from knowing means knowing its equivalent. In a broad sense cognition (cognition) is the acquisition, structuring, and use of knowledge .. (Neisser in Shah, 2004:22). In a further development kognitiflah term which became popular as one domain, domain / area / field of human psychology that include human mental behavior associated with understanding, consideration, problem solving, processing information, deliberate, and beliefs.
According to Chaplin (Shah, 2004:22) sphere is centered in the brain are also associated with konasi (the will) and affective (feelings) related to the realm of taste.
Cognitive sphere centered in the brain is the most important aspects of this aspect is the Sumner as well as controlling other psychiatric domains, namely the realm of effective (sense) and psychomotor domains (intention)

REFERENCE
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2001/ling001/neurology.html
http://www.hms.harvard.edu/hmni/On_The_Brain/Volume04/Number4/F95Lang.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/C004367/la4.shtml
http://susilo.adi.setyawan.student.fkip.uns.ac.id/2010/01/26/hubungan-antara-bahasa-dan-otak-logika-dan-pikiran-dalam-kajian-psikolinguistik/

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