A dependent clause usually begins with a dependent word. One kind of dependent word is a subordinating conjunction. Subordinating conjunctions are used to begin dependent clauses known as adverbial clauses which act like adverbs. In the following examples, the adverbial clauses are bold and the subordinating conjunctions are italicized:
Wherever she goes, she leaves a piece of luggage behind. (The adverbial clause wherever she goes modifies the verb leaves.)
Bob enjoyed the movie more than I did. (The adverbial clause than I did modifies the adverb more.)
Another type of dependent word is the relative pronoun. Relative pronouns begin dependent clauses known as adjective clauses, which act like adjectives, or noun clauses, which act like nouns. In the following examples, the dependent clauses are bold and the relative pronouns are italicized:
The only one of the seven dwarfs who does not have a beard is Dopey. (The adjective clause who does not have a beard describes the noun one.)
No one understands why experience is something you don’t get until just after you need it. (The noun clause why experience is something you don’t get until just after you need it functions as a direct object.)
A noun clause can be used the same way as a noun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. Notice that some of these words also introduce adjective and adverbial clauses. To check whether a clause is a noun clause, try substituting the appropriate pronoun (he, she, it, or they).
• I know who said that. (I know it.)
• Whoever said it is wrong. (He is wrong.)
Sometimes a noun clause is used without the introductory word.
• I know that he is here.
• I know he is here. (without “that”)
In some cases, use of the introductory word, though grammatically correct, may sound cumbersome in English.
• I think that it is pretty. (correct, though excessive)
• I think it is pretty. (standard usage)
An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements. First, it will contain a subject and verb. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering questions such as: What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:
• Relative Pronoun [or Relative Adverb] + Subject + Verb = Dependent Clause
• Relative Pronoun [Functioning as Subject] + Verb = Dependent Clause
Relative pronoun consists of 2 types:
1. Defining Relative: explaining limited only to subjects in written reply without commas.
e.g. The boy who broke the school-window is Tom.
2. Non-Defining Relative: explain not limited to the subject, but there are some more details about the subject itself and in writing dengang commas.
e.g. Tom, who is a naughty boy, broke the school-window.
Relative Pronun are consist of :
1. WHO / WHAT is used for people as a subject.
e.g. The man is my father. The man helped you yesterday.
* The man who helped you yesterday is my father.
Note: That can be used to replace who, whom, which.
2. WHO / THAT used to people as an Object.
e.g. The man is my father. You helped the man yesterday.
* The man whom you helped yesterday is my father.
Note: whom the conversation is often omitted.
3. WHICH / THAT for object used as Object and Subject.
e.g. We are waiting for the bus. The bus goes to Bogor.
* We are waitng for the bus that goes to Bogor.
Note: which / that as the main clause.
4. WHOSE/ THAT used for people who have
e.g The Lady is my neighbor. Her children is in hospital now
* The lady Whose child is in hospital now is my neighbor.
The man is very proud. His son is pilot
*The man whose son is a pilot is very proud.
In formal English grammar, sentence fragments are typically avoided. Writers who want to avoid sentence fragments must connect each adjective clause to a main clause. In the examples below, notice that the adjective clause follows the word that it describes.
Diane felt manipulated by her beagle, Santana, whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie.
Chewing with her mouth open is one reason why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie.
Growling ferociously, Oreo and Skeeter, my two dogs, competed for the hard-boiled egg that bounced onto the kitchen tile.
Laughter erupted from Annamarie, who hiccuped for seven hours afterward.
Punctuating adjective clauses can be problematic. For each sentence, the writer will have to decide if the adjective clause is essential or nonessential and use commas accordingly. Essential clauses do not require commas. An adjective clause is essential when the information it contains is relevant to the overall message. For example:
The vegetables that people often leave uneaten are usually the most nutritious.
“Vegetables” is nonspecific. To know which ones we are talking about, we must have the information in the adjective clause (in italics). Thus, the adjective clause is essential and requires no commas.
However, if we eliminate vegetables and choose a more specific noun instead, the adjective clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read the correct form:
Broccoli, which people often leave uneaten, is very nutritious.
“He saw Mary when he was in New York” and “They studied hard because they had a test” both contain adverbial clauses (in italics). Adverbial clauses express when, why, opposition and conditions, and they are dependent clauses. This means that an adverbial clause can not stand by itself. In other words, “When he went to New York” is not a complete sentence. It needs to be completed by an independent clause. Example:
He went to the Guggenheim museum when he was in New York.
Dependent clauses and sentence structure
A sentence with an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses is referred to as a complex sentence. One with two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses is referred to as a compound-complex sentence.
My sister cried because she scraped her knee. (complex sentence)
Subjects: My sister, she
Predicates: cried, scraped her knee
Subordinating conjunction: because
When they told me I won the contest, I cried, but I didn’t faint. **(compound-complex sentence)
Subjects: they, I, I, I
Predicates: told me, won the contest, cried, didn’t faint
Subordinating conjunctions: When, that (understood)
Coordinating conjunction: but
The above sentence actually contains two dependent clauses. “When they told me” is one; the other is “(that) I won the contest.” The “that” is understood to precede the “I won” and functions as a subordinating conjunction.
Conditional sentence consists of 2 parts of the main clause sentences and sentences with if Clause (in case). In English conditional sentences there are 3 types:
I. Future Possible
This is used to denote an action that will be / happen in the future if a condition fulfilled. The possibility of doing that, depending on the condition that met or not. Attitudes of the speaker in this case showed the neutral and still hope that these actions can occur. For this type of sentence structure as follows:
• Main clause _ simple future tense
• If clause_ simple present tense
e.g : If you study hard, you will pass the examination.
If the weather is fine tomorrow, we will go for a picnic.
If I go to England, I will visit Buckingham Palace.
I will Buy a car if I have much money.
He will tell you if he knows the answer.
Unless – If Not
Unless used to replace if not, for negative statements. Note in the sentence below:
e.g. * If you don’t take an umbrella. You will get wet.
– Unless you take an umbrella. You will get wet.
* If you don’t study hard. You won’t pass the examination.
– Unless you study hard. You won’t pass the examination.
* If it doesn’t rain tomorrow. I will go for a swim.
– Unless it rains tomorrow. I will go for a swim.
* No one will come to the door if doesn’t ring the bell.
– No one will come to the door unless he rings the bell.
* We will be late if we don’t leave now.
– We will be late unless we leave now.
II. Present Unreal
This section is used to declare a state of different / opposite of the reality in the present. appropriate sentence structure as follows:
• Main clause _ past future tense
• If clause_ future tense simple
e.g: -) If you studied hard, you would pass the examination.
(You don’t study hard).
-) If I had a car. I would take a trip to bali. (I don’t have a car).
-) If my father knew how to drive. He would buy a car.
(My father doesn’t know to drive).
-) I would eat japanese food if I lived in japan. (I don’t live in japan).
-) He would buy a new house if he had much money.
(He doesn’t have much money).
If the phrase is expressed by to be, then we use for all subjects were. Like this :
e.g: -) If I were the moon, you would be the star.
-) If I were a bird, I would fly all over the world.
-) If he were not busy this time, he would help you.
-) If I were him, I wouldn’t do that.
-) If I were rich, I would make a trip around the world.
III. Past Unreal
Past unreal is used to express a different situation, and contrary to reality in the past. composition of the sentence as follows:
– Main clause _ Past future perfect tense
– If clause _ Past perfect tense.
e.g: -) If he had gone to the concert last night, he would have seen Mary.
(He didn’t go to the concert).
-) If I had seen you yesterday, I would have told you about it.
(I didn’t see you yesterday).
-) If weather had been fine yesterday, we would have gone for swim.
(the weather was bad yesterday).
-) If you had told her the truth, she wouldn’t have been angry.
(You didn’t tell her the truth)
-) If I had received your message, I would have come at once.
(I didn’t receive your message).